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Creatinine-Iron Complex and Its Use in Electrochemical Measurement of Urine Creatinine

TitleCreatinine-Iron Complex and Its Use in Electrochemical Measurement of Urine Creatinine
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2018
AuthorsKumar, V, Hebbar, S, Kalam, R, Panwar, S, Prasad, S, Srikanta, SS, Krishnaswamy, PR, Bhat, N
JournalIEEE Sensors Journal
KeywordsBiosensors, Carbon, Cotton, Electrodes, Strips

A non-enzymatic electrochemical technique for creatinine sensing is presented, exploiting iron binding property of creatinine. Disposable carbon printed electrodes layered with FeCl3 coated cotton fiber membranes are used to sense creatinine from 10 to 245 mg/dl, on clinical urine samples. The energydispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis confirms the presence of Fe(III) dry chemistry on cotton membrane. Creatinine binding with Fe(III) is verified with UV analysis, with a corresponding decrease in Fe(III) reduction current in cyclic voltammetry. The disposable test strips are interfaced with multi-potentiostat point of care (POC) hand-held device, working in amperometry mode. The results obtained on POC biosensors demonstrate good correlation (R2 = 0.91) with Jaffe method laboratory gold standard. The intra-assay variability is less than 7.1%. The statistical bias as revealed from the Bland-Altman analysis indicates that the POC results are within 95% confidence interval. This POC device does not require any sample preparation step and provides sample to result in less than a minute. FeCl3 sensing chemistry is robust against urine albumin interference, which is especially significant for accurate estimation of albumin to creatinine ratio. The non-enzymatic nature of disposable test strips results in highly stable and robust operation of the POC device over a large range of temperature variations.