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Low-power four-wave mixing in graphene-on-SiN micro-ring resonator

TitleLow-power four-wave mixing in graphene-on-SiN micro-ring resonator
Publication TypeConference Paper
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsDash, A, Nambiar, SR, Pandey, M, Raghavan, S, Naik, A, Selvaraja, SKumar
Conference Name2D Photonic Materials and Devices II
PublisherInternational Society for Optics and Photonics
KeywordsGraphene Four wave mixing Resonators Silicon Microrings Copper Waveguides

Graphene has emerged as an attractive nonlinear-optical material due to the high coefficient of two-photon absorption and four-wave mixing. Four-wave mixing in graphene has been previously studied in silicon-photonic platform. Enhancement of the four-wave mixing using optical cavities such as silicon micro-ring resonator (MRR) has been demonstrated. Recently, similar experiments have been extended to silicon-nitride (SiN) waveguides and micro-ring resonators. Electrostatic tuning of the four-wave mixing, and generation of frequency combs have been demonstrated using SiN MRRs having a Q-factor of 106 at input pump powers ≥ 1 W. On-chip pump powers of the order of 10 mW to 100 mW are desirable to obtain high conversion efficiency of the four- wave mixing. However, such high on-chip powers are challenging to handle in integrated-optic platforms. We report preliminary experimental result of four-wave mixing in graphene-on-SiN MRRs with CW pump power of 120 μW, which is coupled to the MRR. The MRR used has a modest Q-factor of the order of 103 after transferring graphene. We observe four-wave mixing even with a 50 % coverage of monolayer graphene on the MRR. Such low power level allows low-power on-chip nonlinear process. Furthermore, low photon count could be used for quantum photonic process and fundamental research where high conversion efficiency may not be necessary.